Mandala Colouring Therapy And Cognitive Function In Elderly With Dementia

Noor Rochmah Ida Ayu TP, Reni Dwi Setyaningsih, Wilis Sukmaningtyas


Dementia is a disorder of cognitive function in eldery. It is as one sign of an aging process, where there is a metabolic decline in the brain. Non-pharmacalogical theraphy with art theraphy, Mandala Therapy, believed to improved the cognitive function of older adult with dementia.This study aims to determain the effect of Mandala Therapy to improving cogntive function in elderly. Mandala Colouring Theraphy,which is expected to be able to help  elderly  to increase focus, concentration, reduce anxiety and can be an inherent process of meditation. The research design in this study used quasy experimental with the sample as 37 elderly. The measurement of cognitive function was carried out using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) instrument which was carried out before and after the Mandala color therapy. The results found not significant difference between before and after Mandala colouring therapy (p = 0.324) with a mean decline of 0.69 points, but there were significant differences based on the severity of cognitive function disorders. Coloring therapy needs to be done routinely and continuously in order to provide meaningful results.


Dementia, cognitive function, eldery, mandala colouring therapy

Full Text:

PDF (Full Text)


Alzhaimer’s Disease International. (2008). Piagam Global Penyakit Alheimer (Vol. 44).

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2015). Statistik Penduduk Lanjut Usia. Jakarta. Retrieved from

Cassidy, K.-L. (2016). Giant : Anxiety Disorders. Geriatric and Aging, 11(April 2008), 150–156.

Cohen, J., Dakheel-Ali, M., Marx, M. S., Thein, K., & Regier, N. G. (2016). HHS Public Access. PubMed Central, 228(1), 1–21.

Eekelaar C., Camic PM., Springham N. (2012). Art Galleries, Episodic Memory and Verbal Fluency in Dementia: An Exploratory Study. Psychol Aesthet Creat Art, 6: 262-272

Hamilton, I. S. (2011). An Introduction to Gerontology (1st ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hung, S. (2016). Elder care: A Resouce for Interprofessional Providers. Arizona.

Kawabata S., Maki N., Yamamoto A., et all. (2013). Effect Evaluation of Recreational Coloring Carried Out at pay Nursing Home Vol 1. Las Vegas: Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: 214-222

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 25 Tahun 2016 (2016). Indonesia.

Mayeux, Richard., Stern, Yaakov. (2012). Epidemiology of Alzheimer Disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2012;2:a006239.

Miller, C. A. (2012). Nursing for Wellness in Older Adults (6th ed.). China: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Nugroho, Wahjudi. (2014). Keperawatan Gerontik dan Geriatrik Ed 3. Jakarta: EGC

Putri, D. M. P., Nurrachmah, P. E., Gayatri, D., & Kes, S. M. (2012). Pengaruh Latihan Senam Otak dan Art Therapy Terhadap Fungsi kognitif Lansia Dengan Demensia di PSTW Yogyakarta Unit Budi Luhur dan Abiyoso. Universitas Indonesia.

Ramachandran, V., & Aryani, P. (2018). Association between educational level and hypertension with decrease of cognitive function among elderly at Puskesmas Mengwi I Bali ‑ Indonesia 2016, 9(1), 43–48.

Stanhope, M., & Lancaster, J. (2015). Public Health Nursing (9th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elservier Mosby.

Tanna, M.-S., Yu, J.-T., Tan, C.-C., Wang, H.-F., Meng, X.-F., Wang, C., … Tan, L. (2015). Efficacy and adverse effects of ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease : JAD, 43(5), 589–603.

U.S Census Bureau. (2016). An Aging World : 2015 International Population Reports. U.S Goverment Publishing Washington. United States of America.

UK Statistics. (2015). Statistical Bulletin Estimates of the Very Old ( including Centenarians ), England and Wales , and United Kingdom , 2002 to 2014. Retrieved from

Wang, Q.-Y., & Li, D.-M. (2016). Advances in art therapy for patients with dementia. Chinese Nursing Research, 3(3), 105–108.

Weber, P., Meluzinova, H., Matejovska-Kubesova, H., Polcarona, V., Jarkovsky, J., Bielakova, K., & Weberova, D. (2015). geriatric giants - contemporary occurrence in 12,210 in-patients. Britisl Med J, 116(7), 408–416.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Media Kesehatan Politeknik Kesehatan Makassar

Published By : Poltekkes Kemenkes Makassar

Office : Jl. Wijaya Kusuma Raya No. 46 Banta-Bantaeng, Kota Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia

Email  :

Crossref Member Badge

Media Kesehatan indexed by :


Protected By Protection Badge


View Statistics

Flag Counter


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.